Dundae Farm Music
Dundae-dong is a town located just north to Daeya-dong and one of 4 legal dongs under the jurisdiction of Daeya-dong. It is said to be called Dunteo or Dundae since the military was stationed at a large vacant lot at the top of a mountain surrounding the village in former days. Dundae-dong is a typical farm village that has not lost its own traditional beauty and maintains a farm atmosphere rich in local color as a village unit along with traditional music. The village maintains the type of a tune and Jinpuri same as the ones in the southern part of Gyeonggi-do, including Suwon , Hwaseong, Ansan and Pyeongtaek. Types of tunes include Gilgunak (street military music), Deoderaegi, Doderaegarak (Doderae tune) and Jajingarak (Jajin tune), which possess a form of farm music with various functions, including praying for harmony and well being of a village, and Nongsapuri. Gunpo Dundae Farm Music is established with a basic form of Gyeonggi-do’s Utdari Farm Music, showing a model of Dure Farm Music rather than a form of Geollip Farm Music. Dure Farm Music seems to be performed mainly during the farming season. It is said that people went back to their own houses after finishing the day’s labor. While performing exorcism to Dure after coming back to the village when there is the Dure flags, workers participating in Dure block the street and cars or horses and cows did not pass by them, but then the people would have one or two drinks of raw rice wine and mingle with each other before passing. ( Dundae Farm Music)
Sansinje (Mountain God Ritual)
Mountain God Ritual of Suri Mountain
Sanbon used to be Nam-myeon, Gwacheon-gun until the merger and abolition of guns and myeons in 1914. It became known as Sanbon-ri since it is located under Suri Mountain , and became Sanbon-dong with the promotion of Gunpo to the city on January 1, 1989.
The Jayeon (Natural) Village of Sanbon-ri is composed 1-ri and 2-ri, and 1-ri is composed of Dojang-gol, Deunjeot-gol and Gungnae (Gungan) and 2-ri is composed of Gwangjeong and Gokran (also known as Golan). Originally, there used to be a fraternal society called Sanchuk Society, which had been in charge of holding the Sansinje. The society was developed and the “Sanbon Residents’ Love for Hometown Society” or “Suri Mountain God Ritual Preservation Committee” was organized for the purpose of maintaining the tradition of the hometown with expropriation of land for housing construction in 1989. Although confirmation cannot be made due to the non-existence of documents, it is said that the history of the Suri Mountain God ritual stands as being the longest in the area except for the time when such ritual was discontinued temporarily under the rule of Japanese Imperialism.
The ritual is held twice every year in January and July, and the ritual date is chosen as either the first or the second day of those months just 3 or 4 days previous. In case unfairness occurs, the ritual would be postponed to the following month and the ritual date would be selected based on the same method again. The ritual is held at the mountain god altar located at Taeeul-bong Peak of Suri Mountain. The altar is Dangjib (shrine) with one room and a tiled roof without walls. Such is called Dangwu (temple), and the tablet written with ‘Suri Mountain God Worshipping House’ is hung at the temple. Such place is a large worshipping house and Gatmo-bong Peak . Next to Taeeul-bong Peak is a small worshipping house where the rituals are held in order. Originally, the mountain god-worshipping house and a structure for Dangjib did not exist, and trees and stones to the left of the worshipping house were worshipped as the body of Dang God. However, the worshipping house was erected about 30 years ago in order to provide shelter from snow and rain during the ritual.
Dodangje (Dodang Ritual) of Geumjeong Village
Dodangdae of Geumjeong is an altar at a mountain to the west of Angeumjeong (a village to the west of the Seoul-Busan Railway in Geumjeong-dong). The altar is placed at the peak of Dong Mountain toward a railway, engraved with ‘Geumjeong Dodangdae Altar’. ‘Dodang’ refers to an altar where a mountain god ritual is held with an offering in the Gyeonggi area, but it originally was a large juniper tree at the end of a mountain range in front of the village. It is said that a cow to be used as an offering was bought and tied to the tree one year, but the cow cut the rope and ran away. Everyone from the village looked for the cow. It was found lying down under an oak tree where the present worshipping house is located. Therefore, the said place was thought of as a great place and Dodangdae Altar was established there. The present altar was newly installed on May 1, 1995 . The worshipping house has six oak trees and its front is reinforced with a stonewall. ( 「 Gunpo City’s History of the Names of Places and Family History)) The ritual is held at the beginning of July by the lunar calendar every year at Dodangdae in Geumjeong-dong to wish for peace of the village and good harvest by the members of the Geumjeong Hometown Society as the principal body. The ceremony is proceeded in the order of Choheonrye (offering of drink and bowing twice by the master of religious ritual)-Aheonrye (bowing twice by a spouse of the master of religious rituals or an officiant at a ritual)-Jongheonrye (offering of drink and bowing twice by one of officiants of a ritual)-Eumbokrye (a ritual of drinking and eating foods offered during a ritual by participants of a ritual)-cleaning-Cheolbyeondu (covering of dishes used during a ritual).
Mountain God Ritual of Neutiul
Neutiul (Goegok) was a village situated throughout Jaegung-dong and Ogeum-dong. The present area of Chungmu Village is Neutiul village. A valley to the southwest of the village was referred to as Neutiul-gol. Neutiul-gol is in the vicinity of the citizens’ sports square in Geumjeong-dong and Sowol Village in Ogeum-dong today. Since a pagoda tree (zelkova tree) has been symbolized as the government handling right and wrong from old times, it was planted as the tree of Dang Mountain or a guardian tree of a village by the people. It is said that there used to be an old zelkova tree to the west of Dunggeun-bong Peak in the past. Goegok-ri was one of 10 ris in Nam-myeon, Gwacheon-gun in 1912, and was incorporated into Geumjeong-ri , Nam -myeon, Siheung-gun in 1914 during reorganization of administration districts. ( 「 Gunpo City’s History of the Names of Places and Family History 」 ) The ritual is held at the beginning of July by the lunar calendar every year at the mountain god altar in Goegok, Ogeum-dong by the members of the Goegok Hometown Society as the principal body.
Dang Forest Ritual of Deokgogae
Dang Forest is an old tree zone to the west of Deokgogae Village in Daeya-dong. It is referred to as Dang Forest since Dangjib (shrine) used to be located there and it was where people prayed to a guardian spirit of the village for good harvest, health and longevity. The place is occupied by several-century old oriental oak trees and white birches, and a marking stone was placed for commemoration and designated as the ‘Forest to be Preserved’ at the ‘National Beautiful Forest Contest’. ( Gunpo City ’s History of the Names of Places and Family History) The ritual is held at the beginning of October by the lunar calendar every year through participation of Deokgogae Village residents and residents of surrounding villages.
Sau (shrine) was a representative service institution of rural districts during the Joseon Dynasty. Its establishment was based on Sung-Confucian ideology to lead the world through the proprieties, and was built attached to a lecture hall with the goal of teaching the spirit of Jonhyeon (respecting good-natured people) and Yangsa (nurturing scholars) to nurture scholars and enshrine scholars who greatly contributed to Sung Confucianism.
After enforcement of the order for abolition of lecture halls (1868-1871), Samseong Temple was established in April 1882 by Ju Jeong-hong who lived in Samseong Village with the cooperation from the family and Confucian scholars while receiving the portrait of Zhu Xi which was possessed by Yim Heon-hoe, who was an important figure of Kiho School . It is told that Hyangsa (memorial service) had been discontinued for 30 years until 1912 after the death of Ju Jeong-hong in the following year in 1883. Since then, such spirit continued under the tyranny of Japanese Imperialism by restoring Hyangsa (memorial service) at the beginning of occupation by the Japanese Empire in 1912. The temple faced incidents of a part of the shrine collapsing in 1951 due to the aftermath of the Korean War and the portrait of Zhu Xi burning. With occurrence of such incidents, Sau (shrine) was restored in 1952 by uniting the power of the family and Confucian scholars even during the war. The temple has reached what it is today by completing reconstruction of Sau and Mohyeonjae in 1984 after the continuous efforts over a period of 10 years with the establishment of the Reconstruction Committee in 1973 and the Samseong Temple Admiration Society in 1975.
Hyangsa (memorial service) is held twice in spring and fall every year. Chunhyang, which is Hyangsa of Spring, is held on the day of the Zhu Xi’s death on March 9 by the lunar calendar, and Chuhyang, which is Hyangsa of Fall, is held on the day of Zhu Xi’s birth on September 15 by the lunar calendar. Both of Hyangsa are held at 23:00 . Heongwan (officiant of a ritual) and Jibsa (steward) for Hyangsa must be selected. Heongwan offering drinks at Hyangsa is composed of 3 people, including Choheongwan (an officiant of a ritual responsible for Choheon), Aheongwan (an officiant of a ritual responsible for Aheon) and Jongheongwan (an officiant of a ritual responsible for Jongheon). Heongwan is selected amongst Confucian scholars and reputable figures of a society. Jibsa in charge of Hyangsa include Daechuk (Chukgwan) who will read a written prayer during Choheon as well as Jiprye, Bonghyang, Bongro, Bongjak, Jeonjak, Jinseol, Sajun and Alja.
The procedure for Hyangsa is divided largely into Ipjae (starting of a ritual), Haengjae (proceeding of a ritual) and Pajae (conclusion of a ritual). Ipjae is proceeded in the order of Jaegye (self-restraint, devotion) - Bunjeong (choice of Jipsa) - Seongsaeng (examination of a sacrifice) - Jinseol (sealing of an offering and preparing for a table for a ritual) - Sachuk (writing of a written prayer). Haengjae is proceeded in sequence of Jeonpye (presenting gifts by Choheongwan) - Choheon (reading of a written prayer) - Aheon - Jongheon - Eumbok (Chonheongwan) - Mangye (a written prayer by Choheongwan, burning of gifts). The last process of the procedure is Pajae, which is proceeded in the order of Eumbokgaejwa - Chulmundanghoe (preparing for a letter requesting to perform one’s duties).